Biogas is an alternative fuel that is extracted from organic matter that is biodegraded by the existence of microorganisms in the absence of oxygen. In other words, it comes from all those organic wastes that we dispose of in our daily lives, both at a private and industrial level. From the shell of an egg to the pruning of parks and gardens or the sludge from sewage treatment plants.
For this reason, we can say that biogas is a source of renewable energy, as it gives value to the waste by introducing it into the raw material chain, which in turn means reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
It can be used to produce electricity, heat or motion.
Biogas can be used for any of the major energy applications: electric, thermal or as a fuel. It can be channelled for direct use in a boiler adapted for combustion, and even injected into existing natural gas infrastructures, both for transport and distribution.
Currently, the use of biogas is focused on generating electricity for the operation of industrial plants and, simultaneously, for the generation of heat that is used in production processes.
However, in order to guarantee the success of these plants, they must process the incoming waste in a stable manner and with a high degree of automation.
Biogas engines have a wide range of applications, the most common being water pumping, ration chopping and the operation of milking machines in rural areas. The other widespread use is to drive many types of electricity generators.
Good for the economy
So far, landfills, sewage treatment plants and municipal waste treatment plants have taken over almost all waste management. However, possibilities have already opened up for biogas plants to have an option to favour self-consumption, eliminating hydrocarbon taxes for these facilities and, above all, encouraging the production of biomethane, i.e. methane gas of biological origin.
Biogas in Europe
In many European countries, it is now on the roadmap. Experts believe that economic obligations and incentives will inevitably be put in place and that for some companies it will also be a question of image. Considering that the target for 2030 is for CO2 emissions to be cut by 40% from 1990 levels, it is clear that emission reductions in the order of 55% from current levels are necessary. This 55% is an intermediate target, as the final goal by 2050 is for CO2 emissions to be ZERO.